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Carl Thomas Wittwer

Phone: 801-581-4737
Office: 5B426 School of Medicine

Carl Thomas Wittwer

Professor of Pathology
Medical Director, Flow Cytometry and Advanced Technology, ARUP
Co-founder and CSO, Idaho Technology, Inc.
Associate Editor, Clinical Chemistry
Adjunct Professor, Bioengineering
2008 Association for Molecular Pathology Award for Excellence in Molecular Diagnostics
2006 Canadian Society of Clinical Chemistry Traveling Lecturer Award
2006 USU Alumni Achievement Award
2005 IFCC Award: Significant Contribution to Molecular Diagno
1984 MD University of Michigan
1982 PhD Utah State University


Real-time PCR and DNA Melting Analysis

Current Research

Our laboratory develops simple methods for analyzing DNA. In the early 1990s we introduced rapid-cycle PCR techniques for DNA amplification in 10-15 min. In the mid-1990s, we adapted flow cytometry optics to thermal cycling for real-time monitoring of PCR, resulting in the commercial “LightCycler”. As part of this development, SYBR Green I, hybridization probes, and melting analysis were first applied to real-time PCR. Since the early 2000s, we have focused on melting analysis as a DNA analysis method that does not require any separations, electrophoresis, or covalently-labeled oligonucleotide probes. Only two PCR primers and a dye are needed. DNA melting is a fundamental property of DNA and if followed closely, can provide much more information than previously imagined. We recently developed high-resolution melting methods with saturation dyes to provide rapid, inexpensive methods for mutation scanning (identification of heterozygotes), genotyping and sequence matching. The combination of rapid cycle PCR and high resolution melting analysis enables meaningful results in less than 15 min.

Selected Publications

Bustin SA, Wittwer CT, MIQE: A Step Toward More Robust and Reproducible Quantitative PCR. Clin Chem 2017 Sep;63(9):1537-1538

Pryor RJ, Myrick JT, Palais RA, Sundberg SO, Paek JY, Wittwer CT, Knight IT, High-speed Melting Analysis: The Effect of Melting Rate on Small Amplicon Microfluidic Genotyping. Clin Chem 2017 Aug 17;:

Tashi T, Scott Reading N, Wuren T, Zhang X, Moore LG, Hu H, Tang F, Shestakova A, Lorenzo F, Burjanivova T, Koul P, Guchhait P, Wittwer CT, Julian CG, Shah B, Huff CD, Gordeuk VR, Prchal JT, Ge R, Gain-of-function EGLN1 prolyl hydroxylase (PHD2 D4E:C127S) in combination with EPAS1 (HIF-2a) polymorphism lowers hemoglobin concentration in Tibetan highlanders. J Mol Med (Berl) 2017 Jun;95(6):665-670

Wittwer CT, Democratizing the Real-Time PCR. Clin Chem 2017 Apr;63(4):924-925

Wittwer CT, Portable Nanopore Sequencing for Viral Surveillance. Clin Chem 2016 Nov;62(11):1427-1429

Geiersbach KB, Willmore-Payne C, Pasi AV, Paxton CN, Werner TL, Xu X, Wittwer CT, Gulbahce HE, Downs-Kelly E, Genomic Copy Number Analysis of HER2-Equivocal Breast Cancers. Am J Clin Pathol 2016 Oct;146(4):439-47

Liew M, Mao R, Wittwer CT, Salama ME, Detection of chromosomal translocations in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) leukemic specimens by digital expression profiling. Int J Lab Hematol 2015 Oct;37(5):690-8

Rifai N, Topol E, Chan E, Lo YM, Wittwer CT, Disruptive Innovation in Laboratory Medicine. Clin Chem 2015 Sep;61(9):1129-32

Liew M, Farley M, Andreasen J, Parker CJ, Wittwer CT, Rare event counting of CD59- red cells in human blood: A 47-month experience using PNH consensus guidelines for WBC and RBC testing in a reference lab. Cytometry B Clin Cytom 2015 Jul-Aug;88(4):261-9

Zhou L, Palais RA, Paxton CN, Geiersbach KB, Wittwer CT, Copy number assessment by competitive PCR with limiting deoxynucleotide triphosphates and high-resolution melting. Clin Chem 2015 May;61(5):724-33

Chiu RW, Lo YM, Wittwer CT, Molecular diagnostics: a revolution in progress. Clin Chem 2015 Jan;61(1):1-3

Farrar JS, Wittwer CT, Extreme PCR: efficient and specific DNA amplification in 15-60 seconds. Clin Chem 2015 Jan;61(1):145-53

Sundberg SO, Wittwer CT, Howell RM, Huuskonen J, Pryor RJ, Farrar JS, Stiles HM, Palais RA, Knight IT, Microfluidic genotyping by rapid serial PCR and high-speed melting analysis. Clin Chem 2014 Oct;60(10):1306-13

Sundberg SO, Wittwer CT, Zhou L, Palais R, Dwight Z, Gale BK, Quasi-digital PCR: Enrichment and quantification of rare DNA variants. Biomed Microdevices 2014 Aug;16(4):639-44

Li M, Zhou L, Palais RA, Wittwer CT, Genotyping accuracy of high-resolution DNA melting instruments. Clin Chem 2014 Jun;60(6):864-72

Montgomery JL, Rejali N, Wittwer CT, The influence of nucleotide sequence and temperature on the activity of thermostable DNA polymerases. J Mol Diagn 2014 May;16(3):305-13

Sanford LN, Wittwer CT, Fluorescence-based temperature control for polymerase chain reaction. Anal Biochem 2014 Mar 1;448:75-81

Dwight ZL, Palais R, Kent J, Wittwer CT, Heterozygote PCR product melting curve prediction. Hum Mutat 2014 Mar;35(3):278-82

Montgomery JL, Wittwer CT, Influence of PCR reagents on DNA polymerase extension rates measured on real-time PCR instruments. Clin Chem 2014 Feb;60(2):334-40

Sanford LN, Kent JO, Wittwer CT, Quantum method for fluorescence background removal in DNA melting analysis. Anal Chem 2013 Oct 15;85(20):9907-15

Montgomery JL, Rejali N, Wittwer CT, Stopped-flow DNA polymerase assay by continuous monitoring of dNTP incorporation by fluorescence. Anal Biochem 2013 Oct 15;441(2):133-9

Zhou L, Palais RA, Ye F, Chen J, Montgomery JL, Wittwer CT, Symmetric snapback primers for scanning and genotyping of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene. Clin Chem 2013 Jul;59(7):1052-61

Dwight ZL, Palais R, Wittwer CT, uAnalyze: web-based high-resolution DNA melting analysis with comparison to thermodynamic predictions. IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform 2012 Nov-Dec;9(6):1805-11

Sanford LN, Wittwer CT, Monitoring temperature with fluorescence during real-time PCR and melting analysis. Anal Biochem 2013 Mar 1;434(1):26-33

Farrar JS, Palais RA, Wittwer CT, Snapback primer genotyping of the Gilbert syndrome UGT1A1 (TA)(n) promoter polymorphism by high-resolution melting. Clin Chem 2011 Sep;57(9):1303-10

Dwight Z, Palais R, Wittwer CT, uMELT: prediction of high-resolution melting curves and dynamic melting profiles of PCR products in a rich web application. Bioinformatics 2011 Apr 1;27(7):1019-20

Smith GD, Zhou L, Rowe LR, Jarboe EA, Collins BT, Bentz JS, Wittwer CT, Chadwick BE, Allele-specific PCR with competitive probe blocking for sensitive and specific detection of BRAF V600E in thyroid fine-needle aspiration specimens. Acta Cytol 2011;55(6):576-83

Seipp MT, Herrmann M, Wittwer CT, Automated DNA extraction, quantification, dilution, and PCR preparation for genotyping by high-resolution melting. J Biomol Tech 2010 Dec;21(4):163-6

Liew M, Wittwer C, Voelkerding KV, Nucleotide Extension Genotyping by High-Resolution Melting. J Mol Diagn 2010 Sep 16;:

Wittwer CT, Making DNA melting useful. Clin Chem 2010 Sep;56(9):1500-1

Hill HR, Augustine NH, Pryor RJ, Reed GH, Bagnato JD, Tebo AE, Bender JM, Pasi BM, Chinen J, Hanson IC, de Boer M, Roos D, Wittwer CT, Rapid genetic analysis of x-linked chronic granulomatous disease by high-resolution melting. J Mol Diagn 2010 May;12(3):368-76

Zhou L, Palais RA, Smith GD, Anderson D, Rowe LR, Wittwer CT, Enrichment and detection of rare alleles by means of snapback primers and rapid-cycle PCR. Clin Chem 2010 May;56(5):814-22

Kumánovics A, Wittwer CT, Pryor RJ, Augustine NH, Leppert MF, Carey JC, Ochs HD, Wedgwood RJ, Faville RJ Jr, Quie PG, Hill HR, Rapid molecular analysis of the STAT3 gene in Job syndrome of hyper-IgE and recurrent infectious diseases. J Mol Diagn 2010 Mar;12(2):213-9

Montgomery JL, Sanford LN, Wittwer CT, High-resolution DNA melting analysis in clinical research and diagnostics. Expert Rev Mol Diagn 2010 Mar;10(2):219-40

Sundberg SO, Wittwer CT, Gao C, Gale BK, Spinning disk platform for microfluidic digital polymerase chain reaction. Anal Chem 2010 Feb 15;82(4):1546-50

Parant JM, George SA, Pryor R, Wittwer CT, Yost HJ, A rapid and efficient method of genotyping zebrafish mutants. Dev Dyn 2009 Dec;238(12):3168-74

Erali M, Pattison DC, Wittwer CT, Petti CA, Human Papillomavirus Genotyping Using an Automated Film-Based Chip Array. J Mol Diagn 2009 Jul 30;:

Seipp MT, Durtschi JD, Voelkerding KV, Wittwer CT, Multiplex amplicon genotyping by high-resolution melting. J Biomol Tech 2009 Jul;20(3):160-4

Wittwer CT, High-resolution DNA melting analysis: advancements and limitations. Hum Mutat 2009 Jun;30(6):857-9

Bender JM, Rand TH, Ampofo K, Pavia AT, Schober M, Tebo A, Pasi B, Augustine NH, Pryor RJ, Wittwer CT, Hill HR, Family clusters of variant X-linked chronic granulomatous disease. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2009 Jun;28(6):529-33

Margraf RL, Crockett DK, Krautscheid PM, Seamons R, Calderon FR, Wittwer CT, Mao R, Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 RET protooncogene database: repository of MEN2-associated RET sequence variation and reference for genotype/phenotype correlations. Hum Mutat 2009 Apr;30(4):548-56

Lyon E, Wittwer CT, LightCycler technology in molecular diagnostics. J Mol Diagn 2009 Mar;11(2):93-101

Crews N, Wittwer CT, Montgomery J, Pryor R, Gale B, Spatial DNA melting analysis for genotyping and variant scanning. Anal Chem 2009 Mar 15;81(6):2053-8

Palais R, Wittwer CT, Mathematical algorithms for high-resolution DNA melting analysis. Methods Enzymol 2009;454:323-43

Crews N, Ameel T, Wittwer C, Gale B, Flow-induced thermal effects on spatial DNA melting. Lab Chip 2008 Nov;8(11):1922-9

Zhou L, Errigo RJ, Lu H, Poritz MA, Seipp MT, Wittwer CT, Snapback primer genotyping with saturating DNA dye and melting analysis. Clin Chem 2008 Oct;54(10):1648-56

Erali M, Voelkerding KV, Wittwer CT, High resolution melting applications for clinical laboratory medicine. Exp Mol Pathol 2008 Aug;85(1):50-8

Crews N, Wittwer C, Palais R, Gale B, Product differentiation during continuous-flow thermal gradient PCR. Lab Chip 2008 Jun;8(6):919-24

Gundry CN, Dobrowolski SF, Martin YR, Robbins TC, Nay LM, Boyd N, Coyne T, Wall MD, Wittwer CT, Teng DH, Base-pair neutral homozygotes can be discriminated by calibrated high-resolution melting of small amplicons. Nucleic Acids Res 2008 Jun;36(10):3401-8

Elenitoba-Johnson O, David D, Crews N, Wittwer CT, Plastic versus glass capillaries for rapid-cycle PCR. Biotechniques 2008 Apr;44(4):487-8, 490, 492

Crews N, Wittwer C, Gale B, Continuous-flow thermal gradient PCR. Biomed Microdevices 2008 Apr;10(2):187-95

Margraf RL, Mao R, Wittwer CT, Rapid diagnosis of MEN2B using unlabeled probe melting analysis and the LightCycler 480 instrument. J Mol Diagn 2008 Mar;10(2):123-8

Seipp MT, Pattison D, Durtschi JD, Jama M, Voelkerding KV, Wittwer CT, Quadruplex Genotyping of F5, F2, and MTHFR Variants in a Single Closed Tube by High-Resolution Amplicon Melting. Clin Chem 2007 Nov 2;:

Montgomery J, Wittwer CT, Kent JO, Zhou L, Scanning the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene using high-resolution DNA melting analysis. Clin Chem 2007 Nov;53(11):1891-8

Vandersteen JG, Bayrak-Toydemir P, Palais RA, Wittwer CT, Identifying common genetic variants by high-resolution melting. Clin Chem 2007 Jul;53(7):1191-8

Poulson MD, Wittwer CT, Closed-tube genotyping of apolipoprotein E by isolated-probe PCR with multiple unlabeled probes and high-resolution DNA melting analysis. Biotechniques 2007 Jul;43(1):87-91

Reed GH, Kent JO, Wittwer CT, High-resolution DNA melting analysis for simple and efficient molecular diagnostics. Pharmacogenomics 2007 Jun;8(6):597-608

Sundberg SO, Wittwer CT, Greer J, Pryor RJ, Elenitoba-Johnson O, Gale BK, Solution-phase DNA mutation scanning and SNP genotyping by nanoliter melting analysis. Biomed Microdevices 2007 Apr;9(2):159-66

Montgomery J, Wittwer CT, Palais R, Zhou L, Simultaneous mutation scanning and genotyping by high-resolution DNA melting analysis. Nat Protoc 2007;2(1):59-66

Willmore-Payne C, Holden JA, Zhou H, Gupta D, Hirschowitz S, Wittwer CT, Layfield LJ, Evaluation of Her-2/neu gene status in osteosarcoma by fluorescence in situ hybridization and multiplex and monoplex polymerase chain reactions. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2006 May;130(5):691-8

Margraf RL, Mao R, Wittwer CT, Masking selected sequence variation by incorporating mismatches into melting analysis probes. Hum Mutat 2006 Mar;27(3):269-78

Pryor RJ, Wittwer CT, Real-time polymerase chain reaction and melting curve analysis. Methods Mol Biol 2006;336:19-32

Palais RA, Liew MA, Wittwer CT, Quantitative heteroduplex analysis for single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping. Anal Biochem 2005 Nov 1;346(1):167-75

Lewis TB, Robison JE, Bastien R, Milash B, Boucher K, Samlowski WE, Leachman SA, Dirk Noyes R, Wittwer CT, Perreard L, Bernard PS, Molecular classification of melanoma using real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Cancer 2005 Oct 15;104(8):1678-86

Zhou L, Wang L, Palais R, Pryor R, Wittwer CT, High-resolution DNA melting analysis for simultaneous mutation scanning and genotyping in solution. Clin Chem 2005 Oct;51(10):1770-7

Graham R, Liew M, Meadows C, Lyon E, Wittwer CT, Distinguishing different DNA heterozygotes by high-resolution melting. Clin Chem 2005 Jul;51(7):1295-8

Odell ID, Cloud JL, Seipp M, Wittwer CT, Rapid species identification within the Mycobacterium chelonae-abscessus group by high-resolution melting analysis of hsp65 PCR products. Am J Clin Pathol 2005 Jan;123(1):96-101

Seipp MT, Erali M, Wies RL, Wittwer C, HLA-B27 typing: evaluation of an allele-specific PCR melting assay and two flow cytometric antigen assays. Cytometry B Clin Cytom 2005 Jan;63(1):10-5

Margraf RL, Erali M, Liew M, Wittwer CT, Genotyping hepatitis C virus by heteroduplex mobility analysis using temperature gradient capillary electrophoresis. J Clin Microbiol 2004 Oct;42(10):4545-51

Reed GH, Wittwer CT, Sensitivity and specificity of single-nucleotide polymorphism scanning by high-resolution melting analysis. Clin Chem 2004 Oct;50(10):1748-54

Zhou L, Vandersteen J, Wang L, Fuller T, Taylor M, Palais B, Wittwer CT, High-resolution DNA melting curve analysis to establish HLA genotypic identity. Tissue Antigens 2004 Aug;64(2):156-64

Zhou L, Myers AN, Vandersteen JG, Wang L, Wittwer CT, Closed-tube genotyping with unlabeled oligonucleotide probes and a saturating DNA dye. Clin Chem 2004 Aug;50(8):1328-35

Willmore C, Holden JA, Zhou L, Tripp S, Wittwer CT, Layfield LJ, Detection of c-kit-activating mutations in gastrointestinal stromal tumors by high-resolution amplicon melting analysis. Am J Clin Pathol 2004 Aug;122(2):206-16

Liew M, Erali M, Page S, Hillyard D, Wittwer C, Hepatitis C genotyping by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography. J Clin Microbiol 2004 Jan;42(1):158-63

Millson A, Suli A, Hartung L, Kunitake S, Bennett A, Nordberg MC, Hanna W, Wittwer CT, Seth A, Lyon E, Comparison of two quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods for detecting HER2/neu amplification. J Mol Diagn 2003 Aug;5(3):184-90

Wittwer CT, Reed GH, Gundry CN, Vandersteen JG, Pryor RJ, High-resolution genotyping by amplicon melting analysis using LCGreen. Clin Chem 2003 Jun;49(6 Pt 1):853-60

Gundry CN, Vandersteen JG, Reed GH, Pryor RJ, Chen J, Wittwer CT, Amplicon melting analysis with labeled primers: a closed-tube method for differentiating homozygotes and heterozygotes. Clin Chem 2003 Mar;49(3):396-406

García-Villalba P, Denkers ND, Wittwer CT, Hoff C, Nelson RD, Mauch TJ, Real-time PCR quantification of AT1 and AT2 angiotensin receptor mRNA expression in the developing rat kidney. Nephron Exp Nephrol 2003;94(4):e154-9

Bernard PS, Wittwer CT, Real-time PCR technology for cancer diagnostics. Clin Chem 2002 Aug;48(8):1178-85

Wittwer CT, Herrmann MG, Gundry CN, Elenitoba-Johnson KS, Real-time multiplex PCR assays. Methods 2001 Dec;25(4):430-42

Lyon E, Millson A, Lowery MC, Woods R, Wittwer CT, Quantification of HER2/neu gene amplification by competitive pcr using fluorescent melting curve analysis. Clin Chem 2001 May;47(5):844-51

Crockett AO, Wittwer CT, Fluorescein-labeled oligonucleotides for real-time pcr: using the inherent quenching of deoxyguanosine nucleotides. Anal Biochem 2001 Mar 1;290(1):89-97

Elenitoba-Johnson KS, Bohling SD, Wittwer CT, King TC, Multiplex PCR by multicolor fluorimetry and fluorescence melting curve analysis. Nat Med 2001 Feb;7(2):249-53

Heap DM, Herrmann MG, Wittwer CT, PCR amplification using electrolytic resistance for heating and temperature monitoring. Biotechniques 2000 Nov;29(5):1006-12

Brown M, Wittwer C, Flow cytometry: principles and clinical applications in hematology. Clin Chem 2000 Aug;46(8 Pt 2):1221-9

Millson AS, Spangler FL, Wittwer CT, Lyon E, Comparison of automated short tandem repeat and manual variable number of tandem repeat analysis of chimerism in bone marrow transplant patients. Diagn Mol Pathol 2000 Jun;9(2):91-7

Herrmann MG, Dobrowolski SF, Wittwer CT, Rapid beta-globin genotyping by multiplexing probe melting temperature and color. Clin Chem 2000 Mar;46(3):425-8

Bernard PS, Pritham GH, Wittwer CT, Color multiplexing hybridization probes using the apolipoprotein E locus as a model system for genotyping. Anal Biochem 1999 Sep 10;273(2):221-8

Hussey CE, Lyon E, Millson A, Lay MJ, Wittwer CT, Segal GH, A rapid practical RT-PCR-based approach for the detection of the PML/RAR alpha fusion transcript in acute promyelocytic leukemia. Am J Clin Pathol 1999 Aug;112(2):256-62

Bohling SD, Wittwer CT, King TC, Elenitoba-Johnson KS, Fluorescence melting curve analysis for the detection of the bcl-1/JH translocation in mantle cell lymphoma. Lab Invest 1999 Mar;79(3):337-45

Bohling SD, King TC, Wittwer CT, Elenitoba-Johnson KS, Rapid simultaneous amplification and detection of the MBR/JH chromosomal translocation by fluorescence melting curve analysis. Am J Pathol 1999 Jan;154(1):97-103

Gundry CN, Bernard PS, Herrmann MG, Reed GH, Wittwer CT, Rapid F508del and F508C assay using fluorescent hybridization probes. Genet Test 1999;3(4):365-70

Lyondagger E, Millsondagger A, Phan T, Wittwer CT, Detection and Identification of Base Alterations Within the Region of Factor V Leiden by Fluorescent Melting Curves. Mol Diagn 1998 Dec;3(4):203-209

Bernard PS, Ajioka RS, Kushner JP, Wittwer CT, Homogeneous multiplex genotyping of hemochromatosis mutations with fluorescent hybridization probes. Am J Pathol 1998 Oct;153(4):1055-61

Morrison TB, Weis JJ, Wittwer CT, Quantification of low-copy transcripts by continuous SYBR Green I monitoring during amplification. Biotechniques 1998 Jun;24(6):954-8, 960, 962

Bernard PS, Lay MJ, Wittwer CT, Integrated amplification and detection of the C677T point mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene by fluorescence resonance energy transfer and probe melting curves. Anal Biochem 1998 Jan 1;255(1):101-7

Mouritsen CL, Wittwer CT, Reed G, Khan TM, Martins TB, Jaskowski TD, Litwin CM, Hill HR, Detection of Epstein-Barr viral DNA in serum using rapid-cycle PCR. Biochem Mol Med 1997 Apr;60(2):161-8

Swerdlow H, Jones BJ, Wittwer CT, Fully automated DNA reaction and analysis in a fluidic capillary instrument. Anal Chem 1997 Mar 1;69(5):848-55

Wittwer CT, Ririe KM, Andrew RV, David DA, Gundry RA, Balis UJ, The LightCycler: a microvolume multisample fluorimeter with rapid temperature control. Biotechniques 1997 Jan;22(1):176-81

Wittwer CT, Herrmann MG, Moss AA, Rasmussen RP, Continuous fluorescence monitoring of rapid cycle DNA amplification. Biotechniques 1997 Jan;22(1):130-1, 134-8

Endo M, Beatty PG, Vreeke TM, Wittwer CT, Singh SP, Parker CJ, Syngeneic bone marrow transplantation without conditioning in a patient with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria: in vivo evidence that the mutant stem cells have a survival advantage. Blood 1996 Jul 15;88(2):742-50

Florell SR, Townsend JJ, Klatt EC, Pysher TJ, Coffin CM, Wittwer CT, Viskochil DH, Aprosencephaly and cerebellar dysgenesis in sibs. Am J Med Genet 1996 Jun 28;63(4):542-8

Lim LC, Segal GH, Wittwer CT, Detection of bcl-1 gene rearrangement and B-cell clonality in mantle cell lymphoma using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. Am J Clin Pathol 1995 Dec;104(6):689-95

Lingenfelter B, Fuller TC, Hartung L, Hunter J, Wittwer C, HLA-B27 screening by flow cytometry. Cytometry 1995 Jun 15;22(2):146-9

Molot RJ, Meeker TC, Wittwer CT, Perkins SL, Segal GH, Masih AS, Braylan RC, Kjeldsberg CR, Antigen expression and polymerase chain reaction amplification of mantle cell lymphomas. Blood 1994 Mar 15;83(6):1626-31

Hammond EA, Yowell RL, Greenwood J, Hartung L, Renlund D, Wittwer C, Prevention of adverse clinical outcome by monitoring of cardiac transplant patients for murine monoclonal CD3 antibody (OKT3) sensitization. Transplantation 1993 May;55(5):1061-3

Wittwer CT, Marshall BC, Reed GH, Cherry JL, Rapid cycle allele-specific amplification: studies with the cystic fibrosis delta F508 locus. Clin Chem 1993 May;39(5):804-9

Albro J, Bauer KD, Hitchcock CL, Wittwer CT, Improved DNA content histograms from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded liver tissue by proteinase K digestion. Cytometry 1993;14(6):673-8

Segal GH, Wittwer CT, Fishleder AJ, Stoler MH, Tubbs RR, Kjeldsberg CR, Identification of monoclonal B-cell populations by rapid cycle polymerase chain reaction. A practical screening method for the detection of immunoglobulin gene rearrangements. Am J Pathol 1992 Dec;141(6):1291-7

Kershisnik MM, Knisely AS, Sun CC, Andrews JM, Wittwer CT, Cytomegalovirus infection, fetal liver disease, and neonatal hemochromatosis. Hum Pathol 1992 Sep;23(9):1075-80

Weis JH, Tan SS, Martin BK, Wittwer CT, Detection of rare mRNAs via quantitative RT-PCR. Trends Genet 1992 Aug;8(8):263-4

Hopfenbeck JA, Holden JA, Wittwer CT, Kjeldsberg CR, Digoxigenin-labeled probes amplified from genomic DNA detect T-cell gene rearrangements. Am J Clin Pathol 1992 May;97(5):638-44

Holden JA, Rolfson DH, Wittwer CT, The distribution of immunoreactive topoisomerase II Protein in human tissues and neoplasms. Oncol Res 1992;4(4-5):157-66

O'Connell JB, Renlund DG, Hammond EH, Wittwer CT, Yowell RL, DeWitt CW, Jones KW, Gay WA Jr, Menlove RL, Bristow MR, Sensitization to OKT3 monoclonal antibody in heart transplantation: correlation with early allograft loss. J Heart Lung Transplant 1991 Mar-Apr;10(2):217-21; discussion 221-2

Wittwer CT, Garling DJ, Rapid cycle DNA amplification: time and temperature optimization. Biotechniques 1991 Jan;10(1):76-83

Hammond EH, Wittwer CT, Greenwood J, Knape WA, Yowell RL, Menlove RL, Craven C, Renlund DG, Bristow MR, DeWitt CW, Relationship of OKT3 sensitization and vascular rejection in cardiac transplant patients receiving OKT3 rejection prophylaxis. Transplantation 1990 Nov;50(5):776-82

Wittwer CT, Beck S, Peterson M, Davidson R, Wilson DE, Hansen RG, Mild pantothenate deficiency in rats elevates serum triglyceride and free fatty acid levels. J Nutr 1990 Jul;120(7):719-25

Wittwer CT, Fillmore GC, Garling DJ, Minimizing the time required for DNA amplification by efficient heat transfer to small samples. Anal Biochem 1990 May 1;186(2):328-31

Holden JA, Rolfson DH, Wittwer CT, Human DNA topoisomerase II: evaluation of enzyme activity in normal and neoplastic tissues. Biochemistry 1990 Feb 27;29(8):2127-34

Wittwer CT, Schweitzer C, Pearson J, Song WO, Windham CT, Wyse BW, Hansen RG, Enzymes for liberation of pantothenic acid in blood: use of plasma pantetheinase. Am J Clin Nutr 1989 Nov;50(5):1072-8

Wittwer CT, Knape WA, Bristow MR, Gilbert EM, Renlund DG, O'Connell JB, DeWitt CW, The quantitative flow cytometric plasma OKT3 assay. Its potential application in cardiac transplantation. Transplantation 1989 Sep;48(3):533-5

Wittwer CT, Fillmore GC, Hillyard DR, Automated polymerase chain reaction in capillary tubes with hot air. Nucleic Acids Res 1989 Jun 12;17(11):4353-7

Pearson SD, Wittwer CT, Ash KO, Evaluation of three commercial kits for the confirmation of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1). Clin Chem 1988 Sep;34(9):1930

Rabkin MS, Wittwer CT, Kjeldsberg CR, Piepkorn MW, Flow-cytometric DNA content of histiocytosis X (Langerhans cell histiocytosis). Am J Pathol 1988 May;131(2):283-9

Wittwer CT, Bristow MR, Gilbert EM, Renlund DG, O'Connell JB, DeWitt CW, OKT3 therapy as a cause of high panel-reactive antibodies in serum using standard microcytotoxicity techniques. Transplantation 1988 Apr;45(4):832-4

Rabkin MS, Kjeldsberg CR, Hammond ME, Wittwer CT, Nathwani B, Clinical, ultrastructural immunohistochemical and DNA content analysis of lymphomas having features of interdigitating reticulum cells. Cancer 1988 Apr 15;61(8):1594-601

Wittwer CT, Smith AM, Ash KO, DeWitt CW, False-positive antibody tests for human immunodeficiency virus in transplant patients with antilymphocyte antibodies. Transplantation 1987 Dec;44(6):843-4

Wittwer CT, Graves CP, Peterson MA, Jorgensen E, Wilson DE, Thoene JG, Wyse BW, Windham CT, Hansen RG, Pantethine lipomodulation: evidence for cysteamine mediation in vitro and in vivo. Atherosclerosis 1987 Nov;68(1-2):41-9