Personal Profile
Home → Directory → Faculty → Rob S. MacLeod
Rob S. MacLeod

Phone: 801-585-7596
Office: 4602 WEB

Rob S. MacLeod

Associate Chair, Undergraduate Studies
Associate Director and Co-founder, Scientific Computing and Imaging Institute (SCI).
Associate Director, Nora Eccles Harrison Cardiovascular Research and Training Institute (CVRTI)
President, Computing in Cardiology Society
B.Sc. Physics, Dalhousie University, Canada
Dipl. Ing. Electrical Engineering, Technische Universitaet Graz, Graz, Austria
Ph.D., Physiology & Biophyics, Dalhousie University, Canada


Cardiac Electrophysiology; Computational Electrophysiology; Cardiac Arrhythmias, Electrocardiographic Mapping; Scientific Visualization; Bioelectric Signal and Image Processing

Current Research

Current research includes four main projects:
1) Characterize and understand electrical changes in the heart during episodes of acute myocardial ischemia.
2) SImulate electrical defibrillation in the clinical setting of implantable cardiac defibrillators, with special emphasis on children. (Collaboration with Pediatric Cardiology, UofU and Children's Hospital Boston)
3) Study clinical arrhythmias using Image based analysis and electrophysiology of atrial fibrillation. (Collaboration with Division of Cardiovascular Medicine)
4) CIBC: Develop integrated software for image based modeling, simulation, and visualization.
5) Predict induced electrical currents in the brain from stimulation electrodes placed on the cortex in humans. (Collaboration with Northeastern University, U Washington, U Freiburg, Germany)

Selected Publications

Coll-Font J, Roig-Solvas B, van Dam P, MacLeod RS, Brooks DH, Can We Track Respiratory Movement of the Heart from the ECG Itself - and Improve Inverse Solutions Too? J Electrocardiol 2016 Nov - Dec;49(6):927

Polejaeva IA, Ranjan R, Davies CJ, Regouski M, Hall J, Olsen AL, Meng Q, Rutigliano HM, Dosdall DJ, Angel NA, Sachse FB, Seidel T, Thomas AJ, Stott R, Panter KE, Lee PM, Van Wettere AJ, Stevens JR, Wang Z, MacLeod RS, Marrouche NF, White KL, Increased Susceptibility to Atrial Fibrillation Secondary to Atrial Fibrosis in Transgenic Goats Expressing Transforming Growth Factor-ß1. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2016 Oct;27(10):1220-1229

Burton BM, Tate JD, Good W, Macleod RS, The Role of Reduced Left Ventricular, Systolic Blood Volumes in ST Segment Potentials Overlying Diseased Tissue of the Ischemic Heart. Comput Cardiol (2010) 2016 Sep;43:209-212

Coll-Font J, Dhamala J, Potyagaylo D, Schulze WH, Tate JD, Guillem MS, van Dam P, Dossel O, Brooks DH, Macleod RS, The Consortium for Electrocardiographic Imaging. Comput Cardiol (2010) 2016 Sep;43:325-328

Good WW, Erem B, Coll-Font J, Brooks DH, MacLeod RS, Novel Biomarker for Evaluating Ischemic Stress Using an Electrogram Derived Phase Space. Comput Cardiol (2010) 2016 Sep;43:1057-1060

Erem B, Martinez Orellana R, Hyde DE, Peters JM, Duffy FH, Stovicek P, Warfield SK, MacLeod RS, Tadmor G, Brooks DH, Extensions to a manifold learning framework for time-series analysis on dynamic manifolds in bioelectric signals. Phys Rev E 2016 Apr;93(4):042218

Aras KK, Shome S, Swenson DJ, Stinstra J, MacLeod RS, Electrographic Response of the Heart to Myocardial Ischemia. Comput Cardiol 2009;36:105-108

Gao Y, Zhu L, Cates J, MacLeod RS, Bouix S, Tannenbaum A, A Kalman Filtering Perspective for Multiatlas Segmentation. SIAM J Imaging Sci 2015;8(2):1007-1029

Parmar BR, Jarrett TR, Kholmovski EG, Hu N, Parker D, MacLeod RS, Marrouche NF, Ranjan R, Poor scar formation after ablation is associated with atrial fibrillation recurrence. J Interv Card Electrophysiol 2015 Dec;44(3):247-56

Angel N, Li LI, Macleod RS, Marrouche N, Ranjan R, Dosdall DJ, Diverse Fibrosis Architecture and Premature Stimulation Facilitate Initiation of Reentrant Activity Following Chronic Atrial Fibrillation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2015 Dec;26(12):1352-60

McDowell KS, Zahid S, Vadakkumpadan F, Blauer J, MacLeod RS, Trayanova NA, Virtual electrophysiological study of atrial fibrillation in fibrotic remodeling. PLoS One 2015;10(2):e0117110

Coll-Font J, Burton BM, Tate JD, Erem B, Swenson DJ, Wang D, Brooks DH, van Dam P, Macleod RS, New Additions to the Toolkit for Forward/Inverse Problems in Electrocardiography within the SCIRun Problem Solving Environment. Comput Cardiol (2010) 2014 Sep;2014:213-216

Zenger B, Cates J, Morris A, Kholmovski E, Au A, Ranjan R, Akoum N, McGann C, Wilson B, Marrouche N, Han FT, MacLeod RS, A Practical Algorithm for Improving Localization and Quantification of Left Ventricular Scar. Comput Cardiol (2010) 2014 Sep 7;2014:105-108

Blauer JJ, Han F, Ranjan R, Marrouche NF, MacLeod RS, Controlled Activation for Interrogation of the Electrophysiological Substrate. Comput Cardiol (2010) 2014 Sep 9;2014:189-192

Blauer JJ, Swenson D, Higuchi K, Plank G, Ranjan R, Marrouche N, Macleod RS, Sensitivity and specificity of substrate mapping: an in silico framework for the evaluation of electroanatomical substrate mapping strategies. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2014 Jul;25(7):774-80

Parmar BR, Jarrett TR, Burgon NS, Kholmovski EG, Akoum NW, Hu N, Macleod RS, Marrouche NF, Ranjan R, Comparison of left atrial area marked ablated in electroanatomical maps with scar in MRI. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2014 May;25(5):457-63

McGann C, Akoum N, Patel A, Kholmovski E, Revelo P, Damal K, Wilson B, Cates J, Harrison A, Ranjan R, Burgon NS, Greene T, Kim D, Dibella EV, Parker D, Macleod RS, Marrouche NF, Atrial fibrillation ablation outcome is predicted by left atrial remodeling on MRI. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2014 Feb;7(1):23-30

Cates J, Bieging E, Morris A, Gardner G, Akoum N, Kholmovski E, Marrouche N, McGann C, MacLeod RS, Computational Shape Models Characterize Shape Change of the Left Atrium in Atrial Fibrillation. Clin Med Insights Cardiol 2014;8(Suppl 1):99-109

Milanic M, Jazbinšek V, Macleod RS, Brooks DH, Hren R, Assessment of regularization techniques for electrocardiographic imaging. J Electrocardiol 2014 Jan-Feb;47(1):20-8

Wang D, Kirby RM, Macleod RS, Johnson CR, Inverse Electrocardiographic Source Localization of Ischemia: An Optimization Framework and Finite Element Solution. J Comput Phys 2013 Oct 1;250:403-424

Higuchi K, Akkaya M, Koopmann M, Blauer JJ, Burgon NS, Damal K, Ranjan R, Kholmovski E, Macleod RS, Marrouche NF, The effect of fat pad modification during ablation of atrial fibrillation: late gadolinium enhancement MRI analysis. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2013 Apr;36(4):467-76

Burton BM, Erem B, Potter K, Rosen P, Johnson CR, Brooks DH, Macleod RS, Uncertainty Visualization in Forward and Inverse Cardiac Models. Comput Cardiol (2010) 2013;40:57-60

Swenson DJ, Geneser SE, Stinstra JG, Kirby RM, MacLeod RS, Cardiac position sensitivity study in the electrocardiographic forward problem using stochastic collocation and boundary element methods. Ann Biomed Eng 2011 Dec;39(12):2900-10

Daccarett M, Badger TJ, Akoum N, Burgon NS, Mahnkopf C, Vergara G, Kholmovski E, McGann CJ, Parker D, Brachmann J, Macleod RS, Marrouche NF, Association of left atrial fibrosis detected by delayed-enhancement magnetic resonance imaging and the risk of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2011 Feb 15;57(7):831-8

Vergara GR, Vijayakumar S, Kholmovski EG, Blauer JJ, Guttman MA, Gloschat C, Payne G, Vij K, Akoum NW, Daccarett M, McGann CJ, Macleod RS, Marrouche NF, Real-time magnetic resonance imaging-guided radiofrequency atrial ablation and visualization of lesion formation at 3 Tesla. Heart Rhythm 2011 Feb;8(2):295-303

Burton BM, Tate JD, Erem B, Swenson DJ, Wang DF, Steffen M, Brooks DH, van Dam PM, Macleod RS, A toolkit for forward/inverse problems in electrocardiography within the SCIRun problem solving environment. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2011;2011:267-70

Daccarett M, McGann CJ, Akoum NW, MacLeod RS, Marrouche NF, MRI of the left atrium: predicting clinical outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 2011 Jan;9(1):105-11

Wang D, Kirby RM, Macleod RS, Johnson CR, An optimization framework for inversely estimating myocardial transmembrane potentials and localizing ischemia. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2011;2011:1680-3

Mahnkopf C, Badger TJ, Burgon NS, Daccarett M, Haslam TS, Badger CT, McGann CJ, Akoum N, Kholmovski E, Macleod RS, Marrouche NF, Evaluation of the left atrial substrate in patients with lone atrial fibrillation using delayed-enhanced MRI: implications for disease progression and response to catheter ablation. Heart Rhythm 2010 Oct;7(10):1475-81

Tate JD, Stinstra JG, Pilcher TA, Macleod RS, Measurement of Defibrillator Surface Potentials for Simulation Verification. Comput Cardiol (2010) 2010 Sep 26;37:853-856

Badger TJ, Daccarett M, Akoum NW, Adjei-Poku YA, Burgon NS, Haslam TS, Kalvaitis S, Kuppahally S, Vergara G, McMullen L, Anderson PA, Kholmovski E, MacLeod RS, Marrouche NF, Evaluation of left atrial lesions after initial and repeat atrial fibrillation ablation: lessons learned from delayed-enhancement MRI in repeat ablation procedures. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2010 Jun;3(3):249-59

Kuppahally SS, Akoum N, Burgon NS, Badger TJ, Kholmovski EG, Vijayakumar S, Rao SN, Blauer J, Fish EN, Dibella EV, Macleod RS, McGann C, Litwin SE, Marrouche NF, Left atrial strain and strain rate in patients with paroxysmal and persistent atrial fibrillation: relationship to left atrial structural remodeling detected by delayed-enhancement MRI. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 2010 May;3(3):231-9

Segerson NM, Daccarett M, Badger TJ, Shabaan A, Akoum N, Fish EN, Rao S, Burgon NS, Adjei-Poku Y, Kholmovski E, Vijayakumar S, DiBella EV, MacLeod RS, Marrouche NF, Magnetic resonance imaging-confirmed ablative debulking of the left atrial posterior wall and septum for treatment of persistent atrial fibrillation: rationale and initial experience. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2010 Feb;21(2):126-32

Badger TJ, Adjei-Poku YA, Burgon NS, Kalvaitis S, Shaaban A, Sommers DN, Blauer JJ, Fish EN, Akoum N, Haslem TS, Kholmovski EG, MacLeod RS, Adler DG, Marrouche NF, Initial experience of assessing esophageal tissue injury and recovery using delayed-enhancement MRI after atrial fibrillation ablation. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2009 Dec;2(6):620-5

Lew S, Wolters CH, Anwander A, Makeig S, MacLeod RS, Improved EEG source analysis using low-resolution conductivity estimation in a four-compartment finite element head model. Hum Brain Mapp 2009 Sep;30(9):2862-78

Lew S, Wolters CH, Dierkes T, Röer C, Macleod RS, Accuracy and run-time comparison for different potential approaches and iterative solvers in finite element method based EEG source analysis. Appl Numer Math 2009 Aug;59(8):1970-1988

Isaacson BM, Stinstra JG, MacLeod RS, Webster JB, Beck JP, Bloebaum RD, Bioelectric analyses of an osseointegrated intelligent implant design system for amputees. J Vis Exp 2009 Jul 15;(29):1-6

MacLeod RS, Stinstra JG, Lew S, Whitaker RT, Swenson DJ, Cole MJ, Krüger J, Brooks DH, Johnson CR, Subject-specific, multiscale simulation of electrophysiology: a software pipeline for image-based models and application examples. Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 2009 Jun 13;367(1896):2293-310

Oakes RS, Badger TJ, Kholmovski EG, Akoum N, Burgon NS, Fish EN, Blauer JJ, Rao SN, DiBella EV, Segerson NM, Daccarett M, Windfelder J, McGann CJ, Parker D, MacLeod RS, Marrouche NF, Detection and quantification of left atrial structural remodeling with delayed-enhancement magnetic resonance imaging in patients with atrial fibrillation. Circulation 2009 Apr 7;119(13):1758-67

Badger TJ, Oakes RS, Daccarett M, Burgon NS, Akoum N, Fish EN, Blauer JJ, Rao SN, Adjei-Poku Y, Kholmovski EG, Vijayakumar S, Di Bella EV, MacLeod RS, Marrouche NF, Temporal left atrial lesion formation after ablation of atrial fibrillation. Heart Rhythm 2009 Feb;6(2):161-8

Sutherland DR, Ni Q, MacLeod RS, Lux RL, Punske BB, Experimental measures of ventricular activation and synchrony. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2008 Dec;31(12):1560-70

McGann CJ, Kholmovski EG, Oakes RS, Blauer JJ, Daccarett M, Segerson N, Airey KJ, Akoum N, Fish E, Badger TJ, DiBella EV, Parker D, MacLeod RS, Marrouche NF, New magnetic resonance imaging-based method for defining the extent of left atrial wall injury after the ablation of atrial fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2008 Oct 7;52(15):1263-71

Taccardi B, Punske BB, Macchi E, Macleod RS, Ershler PR, Epicardial and intramural excitation during ventricular pacing: effect of myocardial structure. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2008 Apr;294(4):H1753-66

Geneser SE, Kirby RM, MacLeod RS, Application of stochastic finite element methods to study the sensitivity of ECG forward modeling to organ conductivity. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2008 Jan;55(1):31-40

Shome S, Lux RL, Punske BB, MacLeod RS, Ischemic preconditioning protects against arrhythmogenesis through maintenance of both active as well as passive electrical properties in ischemic canine hearts. J Electrocardiol 2007 Nov-Dec;40(6 Suppl):S150-9

Yilmaz B, MacLeod R , Generalized training subset selection for statistical estimation of epicardial activation maps from intravenous catheter measurements. Comput Biol Med 2007 Mar;37(3):328-36

Ghodrati A, Brooks DH, MacLeod R , Methods of solving reduced lead systems for inverse electrocardiography. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2007 Feb;54(2):339-43

Stinstra JG, Jolley M, Callahan M, Weinstein D, Cole M, Brooks DH, Triedman J, MacLeod RS, Evaluation of different meshing algorithms in the computation of defibrillation thresholds in children. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2007;2007:1422-5

Serinagaoglu Y, Brooks DH, MacLeod R , Improved performance of bayesian solutions for inverse electrocardiography using multiple information sources. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2006 Oct;53(10):2024-34

Ghodrati A, Brooks DH, Tadmor G, MacLeod R , Wavefront-based models for inverse electrocardiography. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2006 Sep;53(9):1821-31

Wolters CH, Anwander A, Tricoche X, Weinstein D, Koch MA, MacLeod R , Influence of tissue conductivity anisotropy on EEG/MEG field and return current computation in a realistic head model: a simulation and visualization study using high-resolution finite element modeling. Neuroimage 2006 Apr 15;30(3):813-26

Stinstra J, Roberts S, Pormann J, Macleod R, Henriquez , A Model of 3D Propagation in Discrete Cardiac Tissue. Comput Cardiol 2006;33:41-44

Stinstra JG, Hopenfeld B, Macleod RS, On the passive cardiac conductivity. Ann Biomed Eng 2005 Dec;33(12):1743-51

Stinstra JG, Shome S, Hopenfeld B, MacLeod RS, Modelling passive cardiac conductivity during ischaemia. Med Biol Eng Comput 2005 Nov;43(6):776-82

Yilmaz B, MacLeod RS, Punske BB, Taccardi B, Brooks D , Venous catheter based mapping of ectopic epicardial activation: training data set selection for statistical estimation. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2005 Nov;52(11):1823-31

MacLeod RS, Shome S, Stinstra J, Punske BB, Hopenfeld B, Mechanisms of ischemia-induced ST-segment changes. J Electrocardiol 2005 Oct;38(4 Suppl):8-13

Hopenfeld B, Stinstra JG, MacLeod RS, The effect of conductivity on ST-segment epicardial potentials arising from subendocardial ischemia. Ann Biomed Eng 2005 Jun;33(6):751-63

Hopenfeld B, Stinstra JG, Macleod RS, Mechanism for ST depression associated with contiguous subendocardial ischemia. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2004 Oct;15(10):1200-6

Yilmaz B, MacLeod RS, Venous catheter based mapping of epicardial ectopic activation. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2004;2:1002-5

Wolters CH, Anwander A, Maess B, Macleod RS, Friederici AD, The influence of volume conduction effects on the EEG/MEG reconstruction of the sources of the Early Left Anterior Negativity. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2004;5:3569-72

Shome S, Stinstra JG, Hopenfeld B, Punske BB, Macleod RS, A study of the dynamics of cardiac ischemia using experimental and modeling approaches. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2004;5:3585-8

Stinstra JG, Hopenfeld B, Macleod RS, Using models of the passive cardiac conductivity and full heart anisotropic bidomain to study the epicardial potentials in ischemia. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2004;5:3555-8

Punske BB, Ni Q, Lux RL, MacLeod RS, Ershler PR, Dustman TJ, Allison MJ, Taccardi B, Spatial methods of epicardial activation time determination in normal hearts. Ann Biomed Eng 2003 Jul-Aug;31(7):781-92

MacLeod RS, Punske B, Yilmaz B, Shome S, Taccardi B, The role of heart rate in myocardial ischemia from restricted coronary perfusion. J Electrocardiol 2001;34 Suppl:43-51

Fuller MS, Sándor G, Punske B, Taccardi B, MacLeod RS, Ershler PR, Green LS, Lux RL, Estimates of repolarization dispersion from electrocardiographic measurements. Circulation 2000 Aug 8;102(6):685-91

Fuller MS, Sándor G, Punske B, Taccardi B, MacLeod RS, Ershler PR, Green LS, Lux RL, Estimates of repolarization and its dispersion from electrocardiographic measurements: direct epicardial assessment in the canine heart. J Electrocardiol 2000 Apr;33(2):171-80

Ni Q, MacLeod RS, Punske BB, Taccardi B, Computing and visualizing electric potentials and current pathways in the thorax. J Electrocardiol 2000;33 Suppl:189-97

MacLeod RS, Ni Q, Punske B, Ershler PR, Yilmaz B, Taccardi B, Effects of heart position on the body-surface electrocardiogram. J Electrocardiol 2000;33 Suppl:229-37

Punske BB, Lux RL, MacLeod RS, Fuller MS, Ershler PR, Dustman TJ, Vyhmeister Y, Taccardi B, Mechanisms of the spatial distribution of QT intervals on the epicardial and body surfaces. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 1999 Dec;10(12):1605-18

Ni Q, MacLeod RS, Lux RL, Three-dimensional activation mapping in ventricular muscle: interpolation and approximation of activation times. Ann Biomed Eng 1999 Sep-Oct;27(5):617-26

Kuenzler RO, MacLeod RS, Taccardi B, Ni Q, Lux RL, Estimation of epicardial activation maps from intravascular recordings. J Electrocardiol 1999 Apr;32(2):77-92

Lux RL, Fuller MS, MacLeod RS, Ershler PR, Punske BB, Taccardi B, Noninvasive indices of repolarization and its dispersion. J Electrocardiol 1999;32 Suppl:153-7

Ni Q, MacLeod RS, Lux RL, Taccardi B, A novel interpolation method for electric potential fields in the heart during excitation. Ann Biomed Eng 1998 Jul-Aug;26(4):597-607

Taccardi B, Punske BB, Lux RL, MacLeod RS, Ershler PR, Dustman TJ, Vyhmeister Y, Useful lessons from body surface mapping. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 1998 Jul;9(7):773-86

MacLeod RS, Brooks DH, Recent progress in inverse problems in electrocardiology. IEEE Eng Med Biol Mag 1998 Jan-Feb;17(1):73-83

Lux RL, Fuller MS, MacLeod RS, Ershler PR, Green LS, Taccardi B, QT interval dispersion: dispersion of ventricular repolarization or dispersion of QT interval? J Electrocardiol 1998;30 Suppl:176-80

Johnson CR, MacLeod RS, Adaptive local regularization methods for the inverse ECG problem. Prog Biophys Mol Biol 1998;69(2-3):405-23

MacLeod RS, Lux RL, Taccardi B, A possible mechanism for electrocardiographically silent changes in cardiac repolarization. J Electrocardiol 1998;30 Suppl:114-21

Klepfer RN, Johnson CR, Macleod RS, The effects of inhomogeneities and anisotropies on electrocardiographic fields: a 3-D finite-element study. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 1997 Aug;44(8):706-19

MacLeod RS, Lux RL, Fuller MS, Taccardi B, Evaluation of novel measurement methods for detecting heterogeneous repolarization. J Electrocardiol 1996;29 Suppl:145-53

Taccardi B, Lux RL, MacLeod RS, Ershler PR, Dustman TJ, Scott M, Vyhmeister Y, Ingebrigtsen N, ECG waveforms and cardiac electric sources. J Electrocardiol 1996;29 Suppl:98-100

MacLeod RS, Lux RL, Errors in ECG parameter estimation from standard leadsets. J Electrocardiol 1995;28 Suppl:98-103

Lux RL, MacLeod RS, Fuller M, Green LS, Kornreich F, Estimating ECG distributions from small numbers of leads. J Electrocardiol 1995;28 Suppl:92-8

MacLeod RS, Gardner M, Miller RM, Horácek BM, Application of an electrocardiographic inverse solution to localize ischemia during coronary angioplasty. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 1995 Jan;6(1):2-18

MacLeod RS, Brooks DH, On H, Krim H, Lux RL, Kornreich F, Analysis of PTCA-induced ischemia using an ECG inverse solution or the wavelet transform. J Electrocardiol 1994;27 Suppl:93-100

Lux RL, Green LS, MacLeod RS, Taccardi B, Assessment of spatial and temporal characteristics of ventricular repolarization. J Electrocardiol 1994;27 Suppl:100-5

Johnson CR, MacLeod RS, Ershler PR, A computer model for the study of electrical current flow in the human thorax. Comput Biol Med 1992 Sep;22(5):305-23